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A recent field of research related to transport phenomena in fluid dynamics is the study of interactions between a turbulent fluid field and biological species. Turbulence acts both on the large and small scales of motion. As a consequence, a passive particulate tends to be transported and mixed by the carrying flow field. In the case of an active particulate however, the mixing and advection properties of the flow field can affect the biological production. On one hand, mixing can enhance biological productivity at small scales and, on the other hand, coherent structures, such as vortices and jets, may limit and localize the production processes. 
In connection to this, the application of fluid mechanics to biological systems, in particular to the human cardiovascular system, is a rapidly emerging field that requires a deep knowledge of fluid mechanics as well as nonlinear solid mechanics, and specific technical methods for handling fluid-solid interacting systems. This field introduces important new theoretical issues to be addressed. It involves the interaction of fluid with biological systems as well as with technological devices. The study of flows in prosthetic elements, extra-corporeal flow systems, micro-devices involves a broad range of industrial fluid mechanics that is also part of the curriculum study.